Looking Under the Hood

This post is going to be about meat and finances.  If you are mostly here for the cute lambs, that’s totally cool, of course, but this post doesn’t have any of those.  We will be back to our regularly-scheduled programming next post.

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We are excited to announce that we will be having lamb sausage made in mid June.  We will have Garlic Parmesan sausage available for sale at our farm and hopefully at a few select locations in the state.  Delivery is possible, for those that want it.  That said, my thoughts about how to sell this sausage and my lamb crop generally are a bit mixed at the moment.

Here’s the skinny: The most I can make selling a 45lb lamb is selling one to you, whole or half, at my current price, $10/lb.  Even thought I pay the butcher and often do the transport, that is my longest dollar.  While sausage is a food that anyone can cook and enjoy, your sausage yield from that same 45lb lamb might only be 25 lbs of ground meat, yielding 30lbs of sausage once some pork fat is added.  The price per pound has to go up, and that’s hard to do with a meat format that most people view as cheap.

I have several years’ experience marketing Vermont specialty foods.   Both products I sold were high-priced, specialty offerings so I am pretty familiar with the Vermont market for pantry staples with long shelf-lives.   Meat is different- it is perishable, and unless you’ve really spent your time branding, a lot of customers view it as interchangeable.  Both products I sold in the past were for special occasions and were giftable.  Meat is a staple for most people and would be a rather non-standard gift.  What then, in their minds, is the difference between one farm and another when the product in the clear plastic wrap looks the same?

The Vermont food market offers an unending array of specialty foods but has probably achieved saturation in some areas.  Non-diet-specialized baked goods and sugary foods are saturated sectors.  I’ve been told that specialty hot sauces and mustards  the truth is that many people who buy lamb have a friend or neighbor who can sell it at hobby-scale prices.  It is fine with me that farms do that, but I know that it reduces my ability to sell meat in Vermont at prices that will sustain our farm without us also working full-time off-farm jobs.

Some of the common mistakes and a few brilliant moves are known to me.  I am not as familiar with perishable meat sales and distribution, though, and I worry about making similar mistakes to the ones I have seen.

Here is a non-exhaustive list of things I shouldn’t do when I try to sell my lamb:

  • Under-price my product such that I wind up in a position where I lose customers when I correct the price later.   I knew a company that delivered their product for free and didn’t factor their debt into the price.  When they went back and recalculated, many purchasers reduced or eliminated the product from the shelves.  They simply could not bear the price increase and replaced the product with another that generated more turnover and revenue.  Pricing correctly requires a lot of calculations, sometimes with numbers that I don’t yet know.  It’s intimidating!
  • Put my eggs all in one basket.  Another company I heard about was lining up a large contract with a national retailer.  They halted marketing efforts because the retailer was going to purchase 75% of their product output and invested in specialized boxes that the vendor required.  The retailer only took about 1/3rd of what they projected, and the company had to scramble to move the rest of their product in a very short timeframe.   With a relatively small output of lamb this year but hopes for much more next year, I need to focus on sending lamb to growth areas and establishing relationships, but not running out of product!  Yikes!
  • Neglect my marketing.  One of the best efforts one of my prior companies made was to put lots of effort into reaching out to magazines and media.  They created their own niche by having a stronger media presence than some of the first-to-market competitors with smaller budgets.  It was really impressive to see the effects of that effort in sales effectiveness.  I haven’t focused enough on this because I don’t plan to market in my immediate vicinity.  Frankly, my immediate area is generally very low-income and might possibly find my prices and my Animal Welfare Approved certifications offensive or off-putting.
  • Fail to utilize my social media presence.   This farm has almost 500 Facebook followers and has over 1000 Instagram followers.  Woohoo!  It makes me incredibly happy to know that so many people care about the goings-on on this little farm.  But I think that I have more folks who love pictures of sheep than I have people looking to buy our yarn or our meat.  And the meat issue is especially touchy – I don’t post about meat because I don’t want to offend folks who would buy the yarn but not the meat, but the reality is that meat income makes this farm viable.  I started raising animals for meat because I wanted to eat meat raised to the very highest standards after 10 years of being vegetarian.  So I am not ashamed of it, but I am also unable to mobilize my social media effectively because I have a product that enough people just don’t want to see or think about.
  • Allocate my time and product incorrectly.  I want to build a presence mainly in the Boston and/or New York City markets, because I see that the Vermont market is pretty well saturated for lamb, generally.   But I also need to make the “longest dollar” for my efforts, which means capturing a maximum amount of retail sales.  The irony is that if I sell at a local farmer’s market, I will capture more retail dollars, but I will cut into my future salespower by not growing my market where growth can be achieved.   Does that make sense?  Let’s say I produce 30% more than I can sell at Vermont food co-ops and a farmer’s market, that 30% of my output might only last 3 or 4 weeks at a market in Boston.  Whereas if I sold my whole crop to one or two markets in Boston, that might ultimately result in no leftover lamb.  But then we are back to No-No #2, putting all of our eggs in one basket!
  • Making your sales work for you as money and media: I have a distributor in Boston that is interested in my meat, but I can’t afford to sell at the price they are currently offering.  When the sheep have reached a full population, perhaps I will be able to use them as an outlet.  The meat would also have their label, not mine, which doesn’t contribute to promoting my products effectively.

 

All of these thoughts seem to lead me in endless circles.  How to I launch in a place that I no longer know, with a level of sophistication that I no longer cultivate in myself, but do it in a way that I can continue to grow this business and sell more lamb in years to come?    Fundamentally, this is an issue of scaling up in a deliberate and planned way, which I understand is much easier to do with factories and widgets versus living beings.  Is it possible to make my longest-dollar by doing more retail in the short-term, while simultaneously selling to a distant market on a wholesale basis?

I would be interested in anyone’s thoughts and comments!

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Lamb sausages are really delicious.

More Goodbyes

Many of you who follow this blog know that Caseous Lymphadenitis has been an issue in the flock in the past.  After an aggressive eradication campaign, the whole flock tested negative in March.  However, my last CormoX ewe, Meadowlark, developed a very large and very concerning abscess on her cheek last week.  Even though she tested negative for CL three times, I know that false negatives are not impossible and I didn’t feel I could risk having her cyst bursting, spreading illness around.

We separated Lark from the flock, but realized that we couldn’t just have her in the barn all alone.  We had been on the fence about keeping Dalek after she had a premature single, failed to come into milk, and showed no signs of regaining any weight.  We decided that it would be okay to let her go at this time also.  So we transported both sheep back to the barn for a day.  We had an on-farm slaughterer come and the deed was swift and stressless for both sheep.  We got our answer about Dalek- massive lung damage from a bout with pneumonia.  We had noticed her wheezing a bit, but our previous vet hadn’t heard anything in the lungs then.  I assume that she had pneumonia at some point earlier in her life and was treated, but had sustained serious damage.  If we hadn’t intervened, she would have died a slow and agonizing death.

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That lump under her ear is bad news bears.  There is no recommended treatment for CL

I feel sad to lose such good ewes.  Both were devoted mothers and herd leaders.   I am so frustrated that this disease issue continues to worry the flock.  I am committed to eliminating it, though, for the long-term wellbeing of the sheep in my care.  I have to assume that any disease that packs the lymph nodes with nasty puss has to be painful as well as economically damaging.  I will really miss them both.

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The rest of the flock seems very happy out on pasture.   The grass is rich and the ewes are gaining a bit of weight to counter the pounds they’ve milked off in the last few months.  We also have our first new lamb in a while!  Sheppenwolf had a single ram lamb this morning.

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What a cutie!

 

 

Pasture and Fear

The grass ripened for grazing this week, and the sheep went on grass on Friday.  I have been watching them every moment since then.  I have been so anxious about putting the ewes and lambs out on pasture, which makes little since as we are a pasture-based farm focused on rotational grazing!

I worried that sheep will bloat during the transition from hay to pasture.  Ruminant digestion relies on beneficial bacteria populating the gut of the sheep.  They don’t adjust well to sudden dietary changes.  If indigestion takes place, the sheep will develop painful gas in the rumen that can cause death in an hour or two.  The rumen becomes so inflated that the sheep will suffocate!  So I watched the sheep on pasture like a hawk, even training a high-beam flashlight on them at night to check for illness.  So far, everyone has been fine.

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Pasture, Day 1

Another anxiety is whether the lambs will understand to avoid the fence.  Ideally, a lamb will touch the fence with his/her nose, get a shock, and jump back.  Usually, they run off with an offended “BAA” and learn that the fence is to be avoided.  But once in a while you get a special one who runs forward and entangles.  So I have also been watching the fence lines for stuck lambs.  Also, so far so good.

My final anxiety is about the season.  I am worried about whether I have correctly matched the numbers of sheep with the amount of land I have.  I am asking this land to support more than 70 sheep, but I am worried that I won’t have the fodder to support them.  In short, what if the grass won’t grow?  On this one, I am trying to just have a little faith that my instincts are good and the sheep will have feed enough.  The lambs will ship just as feed runs low in the fall, so I think I am in better shape than I feel like I am.

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Pasture, Day 3

Meanwhile, the sheep are filled with joy to be outside.  They graze in the bright sun and ruminate in the shade.  The lambs bounce and play a bit, but most are old enough that grazing is the focus of their day.  Each paddock at this time of year is approximately 164ft x 164ft, more than a half-acre.  The sheep move a little more than once a day, primarily because I am carefully watching the grazing rates.  It is crucial not to allow the sheep to graze below the growth point of the grass.

The following is from Beef Magazine, but is relevant to my project:

Research shows when up to 50% of a plant’s leaf volume is removed, root growth stoppage is about 2-4%. If 60% of the leaf volume is removed, root growth stoppage escalates to about 50%. At 80% removal, the roots have no regrowth.

I want to have strong regrowth, so monitoring is constant.  The sheep are really a full-time job right now.

In other news, we treated GWAR for a bit of footscald with a mediboot.  We caught her on pasture and put some nice treatment goop between her two toes and then stuck the embarrassing blue boot on her foot.  GWAR hopped away, bereft of dignity but will hopefully feel much better in a couple of days.

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Sue is still Sue – diving under the fence to get to the new pasture first.

 

Fertility

We bought our farm as a foreclosure, for those who may not remember from last year.   Some of the fields had been grazed by a pair of horses, and other areas were hayed for a few years.  As best we can tell, no inputs were added because after we took a cut in late July, the grass wasn’t ready for a second cut in September!  That is really, really slow.

Soil testing revealed the rest – deficiencies in phosphorus and potassium in all fields, and nitrogen is needed, too.  Last year, Matt and I moved horse manure over the mountain from Lowell to spread on our smallest and most depleted field.  This spring, as we watched our neighbor’s field grow twice as fast as ours from the benefits of his manure-spreading, we decided to go on Craigslist and see what we could find.  We were in luck- folks in Cabot were selling pure rabbit manure!

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The sweet scent of…fertility.

So Matt and I made five 1-ton trips to spread our second-most-depleted field with bunny berries.  We hand-shoveled manure out of the truck to fill the spreader.

 

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Whew!  The good news is that rabbit manure breaks down rapidly for a quick and solid nutrient boost to pasture.  It’s greener already out there.

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The last picture of sheep indoors until next November!  Look how big Meadowlarks lamb has grown.

A Mighty Wind

We had 70 mph winds last night.   Our power went out, our house rocked like we were having an earthquake,  and we kept checking the orientation of the chicken coop to make sure it hadn’t blown over.   Poor Matt was restless all night long, but I did manage to sleep through it.

In the morning, everything that had been on the porch was scattered across the property.  The chicken coop shifted, but remained upright.  The barn had clearly rocked on its foundation – the brackets are bent and will need to be bent back to their original position and redrilled.

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Yikes!

Because our power was out, I set out for the Craftsbury General Store for some coffee.  With so many coolers, one assumes that they must have a generator!  I found a long line and my neighbor the clerk writing IOUs because without internet service, their card machine was down!  But at least there was coffee, and soon I was more prepared to cope with all of the downed trees and detritus.  Matt took our new tractor out for a spin and helped the town crew to saw up and clear some of the larger downed trees.  I brought him his coffee and joined in the effort to remove a large poplar in a “widowmaker” position.  He and Tim from the highway department leapfrogged with the saws to make manageable chunks, and I was tossing the chunks and brush off the road.  A group of motorcyclists stopped because of the blocked road, turned their bikes off and lent a hand.  The tree was all gone in a few minutes -a testament to teamwork!

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The neighbor’s children’s play-store.  Their fencing was down and they had a tree across their driveway.
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So much for that shed.
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The very nice sign for Diamond Heart Acres Dutch Belted Cattle, bent.
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Matt’s new pride and joy: a Zetor Major 80.  

The World Awakens

Last week, we had snow.  This week, we seemed to be on track to be snow-free until, of course, it snowed again.  On April 30th!  That’s Northeast Kingdom life.

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Just a few hints of grass are visible.  It will be a while yet before the sheep can graze, even though they are plainly aware that the world is brightening around them.  Grazing grass before it has regained lost energy will reduce its capacity to grow back and thrive, so we will let our grass grow back for a while prior to putting sheep on it.

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We have lots of red dogwood on the property.  I will be interested to see if the sheep like grazing this or not.  If not, we will mow it and grow more grass here.

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Spring has revealed all of our streams and seeps.  A great deal of water is moving across our land right now.  We will plan our grazing to avoid allowing animals access to this sensitive land.

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An overview of our greening progress.

Wool Culture

I am a frequenter of Ravelry, a knitters’ and crocheters’ forum with 7 million users worldwide.  I have a favorite group with a mostly social focus that I like to participate in, but I also read other discussions to keep tabs on what people want from their wool products.  I want to make sure I am providing the wool people want.

Recently, a poster asked a question about the modern wool market.  She noted that when she was a child, knitting was a functional skill more like being able to cook and drive than a fancy craft for leisure time.  Certainly, it was a space for self-expression in color and pattern, but knitting was undertaken for the simple fact that hats and sweaters and socks were not easily obtained in other ways!

Like my previous post about the globalization of meat, fabric and textile changed massively in the age of petroleum and globalization.  Synthetic fabrics have replaced wool in many applications, even though wool often performs better and is more sustainable.  The effort of properly caring for wool has turned many people away while others have been scared away from wool by misinformation about sheep and agriculture in general in our culture of increased fearmongering.

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At the same time that people were using free time in different ways or having less free time to knit, cheap, imported, mass-produced wool and non-wool items began to appear in stores.  It soon became equally or more expensive to knit a wool sweater than to buy one.  How is this possible?  Economies of scale, lack of environmental regulations where the clothing is made, cheap labor, mechanization, and commodity bulk wool.   When the time wool subsidies ended in the 1980s, growers of mid-grade work-wear type wool from Down breeds and Medium breeds couldn’t find as many outlets to sell to.   Farmers that used to raise Down breeds have turned to hair breeds, as the cost of removing the wool from the sheep is greater than the value of the wool on the bulk market.  More than half of the US wool clip is finewool today, where once there was a greater diversity of breed types.   Sheepraising on the whole, for wool and for meat, has declined precipitously since WWII, effectively pushed out in the modern era of industrial farming.   Sheep simply don’t industrialize well.  They need to graze on extensive lands and are susceptible to disease in confinement.  Even though there are confinement lamb finishing operations in the US, these operations are declining and struggling to compete with cheaper grass-fed lamb from New Zealand and Australia.  Only the direct-to-consumer and direct-to-store markets in the South and Northeast are growing for lamb in the US.

With respect to yarn: as the generation that knit for need disappears, knitting is much more of a leisure craft activity that consumes extra money and is fed by some degree of nostalgia, plus the satisfactory feelings of accomplishment when a garment is created.  As a wool seller, I know that the stories I share on this blog become part of the wool I sell and the crafts and garments you create from it.

This is the finale of what I wrote responding to the question:

The hard truth is that even though we’ve chosen to join this community of makers here on Ravelry, the number of people who cook, sew, knit or quilt by necessity has shrunk significantly in the last 50 years. All of the people who didn’t enjoy those activities but needed to do them to save money have been bailed out by fast food, by cheap clothing, by synthetic fabrics, by cheap bedding. The people who are left often will spend more money for quality, hence the “boutique-ification” of the yarn, fabric and food markets.

The hard thing for me to acknowledge as a farmer is how much I depend on the small number of people who care more about how their food and clothing was produced than about the price at the register.  Small producers are waging an uphill battle against globalized pork, corn subsidies that secondarily subsidize factory-farmed chicken and pork, petroleum clothing and the petroleum that brought that clothing across the ocean to our stores, and the devaluation of the art of making.

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Some handiwork – find more in our store!

What are your thoughts about current trends in knitting, spinning, crocheting, cooking and making?

 

 

A Sick Lamb, Part Deux

An update on Steven gets…scatological.

When last we left our heroes, Steven the lamb was on the couch, looking a little perkier but not really ready to go back out.  Even through my “everything needs to be economical, this is a business” mindset, Steven has really touched my heart, so what follows reflects my failure to follow my own advice.  I really wanted Steven to be okay.

Our first thought about his symptoms was to assume pneumonia because his breathing did seem labored.  But as time went on, we realized that gastric upset might be the more correct diagnosis.  If you have four stomachs, gastric upset is a big deal.  We noticed that Steven was grinding his teeth, which indicates acute discomfort.  He was also lethargic and his eyelids were very pale, indicating anemia.

So Matt and I decided to fetch him an iron supplement, and we also worked on getting him eating more hay.   Finally, some farts and ball-bearing-like pellets indicated that he wasn’t obstructed.  Pellets aren’t hard to sweep up and a little cleaning spray and we are in business, so we kept monitoring Steven inside.  A few hours and dozens of pellets had Steven looking brighter, but certainly not well.  I treated him with the usual constipation/bloat treatment- some olive oil to get things lubricated and moving again.

Matt had posted this adorable picture on his favorite discussion website:

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And another user had made the comment “Wait, you have a lamb with gastric upset INSIDE YOUR HOUSE?”

As we pondered those prescient words, Steven started to baa.  His tummy gurgled and we tried to bring him over to the mats beneath the parrot perches where bird droppings land.  But he didn’t make it, and soon a jet of absolutely rank manure came straight out.  We had the idiotic idea of putting him in the tub, but he’s large enough and tall enough to get out.  So we had the obvious idea of *taking the lamb back outside where it clearly belongs* and we did so, post-haste.

I was still really worried, so I got up at 4:30am to check on Steven.  He was fine, and more energetic than before.  He had clearly, ahem, continued to empty his digestive tract but was happily munching a bit of hay.

Today, Matt and I were smarter.  We realized that it was really too much to expect Steven to cope with weaning while competing with adult sheep, so we put him in a less-competitive environment- in with the other two bottle lambs.  Despite the inconvenience of removing him from the pen so they can be fed without harassment, Steven can now eat his hay without being pushed aside, and he can more easily reach and drink the water he needs from a correctly-sized bucket.  We are withdrawing them from being Certified Grassfed and will give them creep feed to help them gain weight without a mother’s TLC.  Steven looks happier already, and I’ve already washed the floor again.

A Sick Sheep

I did chores as usual this morning- I fed hay to the rams, bottle fed the two lambs, checked and changed everyone’s water…

But then I noticed that everything was too quiet.  Our older bottle lamb,Steven was not baaing for the “cookie” he gets each morning . Usually, he would be insisting on my attention.  The cookie has oats, cornmeal, molasses, salt and vegetable oil, so just a bit of extra energy so he won’t have to bad a setback from being weaned off milk.

Today, I found him lying down next to another lamb, looking poorly.  When I got him up, he was lethargic and sad, with drooping ears and a sad posture.  I’m thinking he has pneumonia and a touch of anemia – just too much stress from weaning.

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Sad Steven!

I brought him in to the house, where he drearily half-followed me.  Time for some penicillin, some Nutri-Drench, and a little TLC.  I admit that I gave him a bit of milk, hoping that the hit of nutrients and hydration would offset the potential for an upset tummy.  And he did perk up with the milk, but he certainly isn’t out of the woods.

So if you have a moment, please spare a thought for Steven.  I think he will recover, but nothing is guaranteed.  We are watching Great British Bake-Off and petting him on the couch.

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Perking up, eating some hay.

 

 

Pork and Soybeans

Talk of trade wars in the news gave me some thoughts.  I’m not going to wade into politics, but I will wade into farming.

Given their intelligent, social nature, I feel comfortable saying that pigs are some of the most abused animals in factory farming.  According to a recent article in Civil Eats, 75% of breeding sows in the US live in tiny crates without room to move or socialize

 

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So my first thought about the trade war and possible damage to the conventional pork industry was “Good!  Maybe this will decrease the amount of factory farm pork and improve the prospects of pastured pork, where pigs can engage in natural behaviors.  As I read more, though, I realized there was a problem.  China isn’t buying whole pigs at low-cost.  Most of the US pork headed for China consists of offal and parts that most Americans don’t seek out like tails and ears.   I considered that even though many cultural groups within the US may seek these parts, would they go to waste without China buying them, downgraded into pet food.  That’s part of why pastured pork goes hand in hand with eating nose to tail.  Could we convince more Americans to eat ears, tails and offal?   I am still enamored of the liver pate that I made last year.

Soybeans offer a similar conundrum.  On the Chinese market, they are human food and feed for animals.  In the US, most soybeans are fed to animals in confinement.  If soybean prices crash, will we increase the amount of meat grown in confinement, fed soy?   The answer, according to the recent Planet Money podcast I listened to, is that Europe will buy it to feed their farm animals.  Thus, we move carbon and other nutrients around the world using more carbon.

It isn’t lost on anyone that China can read an electoral map and chose to target economic sanctions in areas that voted for the current administration.  How will people affected by price changes view this change and how will they respond?